Custom commands

Unix-like operating systems provide a rich set of command-line tools according to various standards that allow solving very many general problems on the command line, particularly well suited to filtering and aggregating text-based information. Combined with shell features like convenient and terse input and output redirection and streaming with pipes, they can be put together in ad-hoc ways to accomplish larger tasks more specific to the system’s application.

As users grow more familiar with the feature set available to them on their computers, and grow more comfortable using the command line, they will find more often that they develop their own routines for solving problems using their preferred tools, often repeatedly solving the same problem in the same way. You can usually tell if you’ve entered this stage if one or more of the below applies:

  • You type a particular longish command so often it’s gone into muscle memory, and you type it without thinking.
  • You have a text file somewhere with a list of useful commands to solve some frequently recurring problem or task, and you realize you’re cutting and pasting from it a lot.
  • You’re keeping large amounts of history so you can search back through commands you ran weeks or months ago with ^R, to find the last time an instance of a problem came up, and getting angry when you realize it’s fallen away off the end of your history file.
  • You’ve found that you prefer to run a tool like ls(1) more often with a non-default flag than without it; -l is a common example.

You can definitely accomplish a lot of work quickly with shoving the output of some monolithic program through a terse one-liner to get the information you want, or by developing muscle memory for your chosen toolbox and oft-repeated commands, but if you want to apply more discipline and automation to managing these sorts of tasks, it may be useful for you to explore more rigorously defining your own commands for use during your shell sessions, or for automation purposes.

This is consistent with the original idea of the Unix shell as a programming environment; the tools provided by the base system are intentionally very general, not prescribing how they’re used, an approach which allows the user to build and customize their own command set as appropriate for their system’s needs, even on a per-user basis.

What this all means is that you need not treat the tools available to you as holy writ. To leverage the Unix philosophy’s real power, you should consider customizing and extending the command set in ways that are useful to you, refining them as you go, and sharing those extensions and tweaks if they may be useful to others. We’ll discuss here a few methods for implementing custom commands, and where and how to apply them.


The first step users take toward customizing the behaviour of their shell tools is often to define shell aliases in their shell’s startup file, usually specifically for interactive sessions; for Bash, this is usually ~/.bashrc.

Some aliases are so common that they’re included as commented-out suggestions in the default ~/.bashrc file for new users. For example, on Debian systems, the following alias is defined by default if the dircolors(1) tool is available for coloring ls(1) output by filetype:

alias ls='ls --color=auto'

With this defined at startup, invoking ls, with or without other arguments, will expand to run ls --color=auto, including any given arguments on the end as well.

In the same block of that file, but commented out, are suggestions for other aliases to enable coloured output for GNU versions of the dir and grep tools:

#alias dir='dir --color=auto'
#alias vdir='vdir --color=auto'

#alias grep='grep --color=auto'
#alias fgrep='fgrep --color=auto'
#alias egrep='egrep --color=auto'

Further down still, there are some suggestions for different methods of invoking ls:

#alias ll='ls -l'
#alias la='ls -A'
#alias l='ls -CF'

Commenting these out would make ll, la, and l work as commands during an interactive session, with the appropriate options added to the call.

You can check the aliases defined in your current shell session by typing alias with no arguments:

$ alias
alias ls='ls --color=auto'

Aliases are convenient ways to add options to commands, and are very common features of ~/.bashrc files shared on the web. They also work in POSIX-confirming shells besides Bash. However, for general use, they aren’t very sophisticated. For one thing, you can’t process arguments with them:

# An attempt to write an alias that searches for a given pattern in a fixed
# file; doesn't work because aliases don't expand parameters
alias grepvim='grep "$1" ~/.vimrc'

They also don’t work for defining new commands within scripts:

alias ll='ls -l'

When saved in a file as test, made executable, and run, this script fails:

./test: line 3: ll: command not found

So, once you understand how aliases work so you can read them when others define them in startup files, my suggestion is there’s no point writing any. Aside from some very niche evaluation tricks, they have no functional advantages over shell functions and scripts.


A more flexible method for defining custom commands for an interactive shell (or within a script) is to use a shell function. We could declare our ll function in a Bash startup file as a function instead of an alias like so:

# Shortcut to call ls(1) with the -l flag
ll() {
    command ls -l "$@"

Note the use of the command builtin here to specify that the ll function should invoke the program named ls, and not any function named ls. This is particularly important when writing a function wrapper around a command, to stop an infinite loop where the function calls itself indefinitely:

# Always add -q to invocations of gdb(1)
gdb() {
    command gdb -q "$@"

In both examples, note also the use of the "$@" expansion, to add to the final command line any arguments given to the function. We wrap it in double quotes to stop spaces and other shell metacharacters in the arguments causing problems. This means that the ll command will work correctly if you were to pass it further options and/or one or more directories as arguments:

$ ll -a
$ ll ~/.config

Shell functions declared in this way are specified by POSIX for Bourne-style shells, so they should work in your shell of choice, including Bash, dash, Korn shell, and Zsh. They can also be used within scripts, allowing you to abstract away multiple instances of similar commands to improve the clarity of your script, in much the same way the basics of functions work in general-purpose programming languages.

Functions are a good and portable way to approach adding features to your interactive shell; written carefully, they even allow you to port features you might like from other shells into your shell of choice. I’m fond of taking commands I like from Korn shell or Zsh and implementing them in Bash or POSIX shell functions, such as Zsh’s vared or its two-argument cd features.

If you end up writing a lot of shell functions, you should consider putting them into separate configuration subfiles to keep your shell’s primary startup file from becoming unmanageably large.

Examples from the author

You can take a look at some of the shell functions I have defined here that are useful to me in general shell usage; a lot of these amount to implementing convenience features that I wish my shell had, especially for quick directory navigation, or adding options to commands:

Variables in shell functions

You can manipulate variables within shell functions, too:

# Print the filename of a path, stripping off its leading path and
# extension
fn() {
    printf '%s\n' "$name"

This works fine, but the catch is that after the function is done, the value for name will still be defined in the shell, and will overwrite whatever was in there previously:

$ printf '%s\n' "$name"
$ fn /home/you/Task_List.doc
$ printf '%s\n' "$name"

This may be desirable if you actually want the function to change some aspect of your current shell session, such as managing variables or changing the working directory. If you don’t want that, you will probably want to find some means of avoiding name collisions in your variables.

If your function is only for use with a shell that provides the local (Bash) or typeset (Ksh) features, you can declare the variable as local to the function to remove its global scope, to prevent this happening:

# Bash-like
fn() {
    local name
    printf '%s\n' "$name"

# Ksh-like
fn() {
    typeset name
    printf '%s\n' "$name"

If you’re using a shell that lacks these features, or you want to aim for POSIX compatibility, things are a little trickier, since local function variables aren’t specified by the standard. One option is to use a subshell, so that the variables are only defined for the duration of the function:

# POSIX; note we're using plain parentheses rather than curly brackets, for
# a subshell
fn() (
    printf '%s\n' "$name"

# POSIX; alternative approach using command substitution:
fn() {
    printf '%s\n' "$(
        printf %s "$name"

This subshell method also allows you to change directory with cd within a function without changing the working directory of the user’s interactive shell, or to change shell options with set or Bash options with shopt only temporarily for the purposes of the function.

Another method to deal with variables is to manipulate the positional parameters directly ($1, $2 … ) with set, since they are local to the function call too:

# POSIX; using positional parameters
fn() {
    set -- "${1##*/}"
    set -- "${1%.*}"
    printf '%s\n' "$1"

These methods work well, and can sometimes even be combined, but they’re awkward to write, and harder to read than the modern shell versions. If you only need your functions to work with your modern shell, I recommend just using local or typeset. The Bash Guide on Greg’s Wiki has a very thorough breakdown of functions in Bash, if you want to read about this and other aspects of functions in more detail.

Keeping functions for later

As you get comfortable with defining and using functions during an interactive session, you might define them in ad-hoc ways on the command line for calling in a loop or some other similar circumstance, just to solve a task in that moment.

As an example, I recently made an ad-hoc function called monit to run a set of commands for its hostname argument that together established different types of monitoring system checks, using an existing script called nmfs:

$ monit() { nmfs "$1" Ping Y ; nmfs "$1" HTTP Y ; nmfs "$1" SNMP Y ; }
$ for host in webhost{1..10} ; do
> monit "$host"
> done

After that task was done, I realized I was likely to use the monit command interactively again, so I decided to keep it. Shell functions only last as long as the current shell, so if you want to make them permanent, you need to store their definitions somewhere in your startup files. If you’re using Bash, and you’re content to just add things to the end of your ~/.bashrc file, you could just do something like this:

$ declare -f monit >> ~/.bashrc

That would append the existing definition of monit in parseable form to your ~/.bashrc file, and the monit function would then be loaded and available to you for future interactive sessions. Later on, I ended up converting monit into a shell script, as its use wasn’t limited to just an interactive shell.

If you want a more robust approach to keeping functions like this for Bash permanently, I wrote a tool called Bashkeep, which allows you to quickly store functions and variables defined in your current shell into separate and appropriately-named files, including viewing and managing the list of names conveniently:

$ keep monit
$ keep
$ ls ~/.bashkeep.d
$ keep -d monit


Shell functions are a great way to portably customize behaviour you want for your interactive shell, but if a task isn’t specific only to an interactive shell context, you should instead consider putting it into its own script whether written in shell or not, to be invoked somewhere from your PATH. This makes the script useable in contexts besides an interactive shell with your personal configuration loaded, for example from within another script, by another user, or by an X11 session called by something like dmenu.

Even if your set of commands is only a few lines long, if you need to call it often–especially with reference to other scripts and in varying contexts– making it into a generally-available shell script has many advantages.


Users making their own scripts often start by putting them in /usr/local/bin and making them executable with sudo chmod +x, since many Unix systems include this directory in the system PATH. If you want a script to be generally available to all users on a system, this is a reasonable approach. However, if the script is just something for your own personal use, or if you don’t have the permissions necessary to write to this system path, it may be preferable to have your own directory for logical binaries, including scripts.

Private bindir

Unix-like users who do this seem to vary in where they choose to put their private logical binaries directory. I’ve seen each of the below used or recommended:

  • ~/bin
  • ~/.bin
  • ~/.local/bin
  • ~/Scripts

I personally favour ~/.local/bin, but you can put your scripts wherever they best fit into your HOME directory layout. You may want to choose something that fits in well with the XDG standard, or whatever existing standard or system your distribution chooses for filesystem layout in $HOME.

In order to make this work, you will want to customize your login shell startup to include the directory in your PATH environment variable. It’s better to put this into ~/.profile or whichever file your shell runs on login, so that it’s only run once. That should be all that’s necessary, as PATH is typically exported as an environment variable for all the shell’s child processes. A line like this at the end of one of those scripts works well to extend the system PATH for our login shell:


Note that we specifically put our new path at the front of the PATH variable’s value, so that it’s the first directory searched for programs. This allows you to implement or install your own versions of programs with the same name as those in the system; this is useful, for example, if you like to experiment with building software in $HOME.

If you’re using a systemd-based Linux, and particularly if you’re using a display manager like GDM rather than a TTY login and startx for your X11 environment, you may find it more robust to instead set this variable with the appropriate systemd configuration file. Another option you may prefer on systems using PAM is to set it with pam_env(8).

After logging in, we first verify the directory is in place in the PATH variable:

$ printf '%s\n' "$PATH"

We can test this is working correctly by placing a test script into the directory, including the #!/bin/sh shebang, and making it executable by the current user with chmod(1):

$ cat >~/.local/bin/test-private-bindir
printf 'Working!\n'
$ chmod u+x ~./local/bin/test-private-bindir
$ test-private-bindir

Examples from the author

I publish the more generic scripts I keep in ~/.local/bin, which I keep up-to-date on my personal systems in version control using Git, along with my configuration files. Many of the scripts are very short, and are intended mostly as building blocks for other scripts in the same directory. A few examples:

  • gscr(1df): Run a set of commands on a Git repository to minimize its size.
  • fgscr(1df): Find all Git repositories in a directory tree and run gscr(1df) over them.
  • hurl(1df): Extract URLs from links in an HTML document.
  • maybe(1df): Exit with success or failure with a given probability.
  • rfcr(1df): Download and read a given Request for Comments document.
  • sum(1df): Add up a list of numbers.

For such scripts, I try to write them as much as possible to use tools specified by POSIX, so that there’s a decent chance of them working on whatever Unix-like system I need them to.

On systems I use or manage, I might specify commands to do things relevant specifically to that system, such as:

  • Filter out uninteresting lines in an Apache HTTPD logfile with awk.
  • Check whether mail has been delivered to system users in /var/mail.
  • Upgrade the Adobe Flash player in a private Firefox instance.

The tasks you need to solve both generally and specifically will almost certainly be different; this is where you can get creative with your automation and abstraction.

X windows scripts

An additional advantage worth mentioning of using scripts rather than shell functions where possible is that they can be called from environments besides shells, such as in X11 or by other scripts. You can combine this method with X11-based utilities such as dmenu(1), libnotify’s notify-send(1), or ImageMagick’s import(1) to implement custom interactive behaviour for your X windows session, without having to write your own X11-interfacing code.

Other languages

Of course, you’re not limited to just shell scripts with this system; it might suit you to write a script completely in a language like awk(1), or even sed(1). If portability isn’t a concern for the particular script, you should use your favourite scripting language. Notably, don’t fall into the trap of implementing a script in shell for no reason …

awk '/foobar/ && NF>2 {print $1}' "$@"

… when you can instead write the whole script in the main language used, and save a fork(2) syscall:

#!/usr/bin/awk -f
/foobar/ && NF>2 {print $1}

Versioning and sharing

Finally, if you end up writing more than a couple of useful shell functions and scripts, you should consider versioning them with Git or a similar version control system. This also eases implementing your shell setup and scripts on other systems, and sharing them with others via publishing on GitHub. You might even go so far as to write a Makefile to install them, or manual pages for quick reference as documentation … if you’re just a little bit crazy …

Cron best practices

The time-based job scheduler cron(8) has been around since Version 7 Unix, and its crontab(5) syntax is familiar even for people who don’t do much Unix system administration. It’s standardised, reasonably flexible, simple to configure, and works reliably, and so it’s trusted by both system packages and users to manage many important tasks.

However, like many older Unix tools, cron(8)‘s simplicity has a drawback: it relies upon the user to know some detail of how it works, and to correctly implement any other safety checking behaviour around it. Specifically, all it does is try and run the job at an appropriate time, and email the output. For simple and unimportant per-user jobs, that may be just fine, but for more crucial system tasks it’s worthwhile to wrap a little extra infrastructure around it and the tasks it calls.

There are a few ways to make the way you use cron(8) more robust if you’re in a situation where keeping track of the running job is desirable.

Apply the principle of least privilege

The sixth column of a system crontab(5) file is the username of the user as which the task should run:

0 * * * *  root  cron-task

To the extent that is practical, you should run the task as a user with only the privileges it needs to run, and nothing else. This can sometimes make it worthwhile to create a dedicated system user purely for running scheduled tasks relevant to your application.

0 * * * *  myappcron  cron-task

This is not just for security reasons, although those are good ones; it helps protect you against nasties like scripting errors attempting to remove entire system directories.

Similarly, for tasks with database systems such as MySQL, don’t use the administrative root user if you can avoid it; instead, use or even create a dedicated user with a unique random password stored in a locked-down ~/.my.cnf file, with only the needed permissions. For a MySQL backup task, for example, only a few permissions should be required, including SELECT, SHOW VIEW, and LOCK TABLES.

In some cases, of course, you really will need to be root. In particularly sensitive contexts you might even consider using sudo(8) with appropriate NOPASSWD options, to allow the dedicated user to run only the appropriate tasks as root, and nothing else.

Test the tasks

Before placing a task in a crontab(5) file, you should test it on the command line, as the user configured to run the task and with the appropriate environment set. If you’re going to run the task as root, use something like su or sudo -i to get a root shell with the user’s expected environment first:

$ sudo -i -u cronuser
$ cron-task

Once the task works on the command line, place it in the crontab(5) file with the timing settings modified to run the task a few minutes later, and then watch /var/log/syslog with tail -f to check that the task actually runs without errors, and that the task itself completes properly:

May  7 13:30:01 yourhost CRON[20249]: (you) CMD (cron-task)

This may seem pedantic at first, but it becomes routine very quickly, and it saves a lot of hassles down the line as it’s very easy to make an assumption about something in your environment that doesn’t actually hold in the one that cron(8) will use. It’s also a necessary acid test to make sure that your crontab(5) file is well-formed, as some implementations of cron(8) will refuse to load the entire file if one of the lines is malformed.

If necessary, you can set arbitrary environment variables for the tasks at the top of the file:


0 * * * *  you  cron-task

Don’t throw away errors or useful output

You’ve probably seen tutorials on the web where in order to keep the crontab(5) job from sending standard output and/or standard error emails every five minutes, shell redirection operators are included at the end of the job specification to discard both the standard output and standard error. This kluge is particularly common for running web development tasks by automating a request to a URL with curl(1) or wget(1):

*/5 * * *  root  curl >/dev/null 2>&1

Ignoring the output completely is generally not a good idea, because unless you have other tasks or monitoring ensuring the job does its work, you won’t notice problems (or know what they are), when the job emits output or errors that you actually care about.

In the case of curl(1), there are just way too many things that could go wrong, that you might notice far too late:

  • The script could get broken and return 500 errors.
  • The URL of the cron.php task could change, and someone could forget to add a HTTP 301 redirect.
  • Even if a HTTP 301 redirect is added, if you don’t use -L or --location for curl(1), it won’t follow it.
  • The client could get blacklisted, firewalled, or otherwise impeded by automatic or manual processes that falsely flag the request as spam.
  • If using HTTPS, connectivity could break due to cipher or protocol mismatch.

The author has seen all of the above happen, in some cases very frequently.

As a general policy, it’s worth taking the time to read the manual page of the task you’re calling, and to look for ways to correctly control its output so that it emits only the output you actually want. In the case of curl(1), for example, I’ve found the following formula works well:

curl -fLsS -o /dev/null
  • -f: If the HTTP response code is an error, emit an error message rather than the 404 page.
  • -L: If there’s an HTTP 301 redirect given, try to follow it.
  • -sS: Don’t show progress meter (-S stops -s from also blocking error messages).
  • -o /dev/null: Send the standard output (the actual page returned) to /dev/null.

This way, the curl(1) request should stay silent if everything is well, per the old Unix philosophy Rule of Silence.

You may not agree with some of the choices above; you might think it important to e.g. log the complete output of the returned page, or to fail rather than silently accept a 301 redirect, or you might prefer to use wget(1). The point is that you take the time to understand in more depth what the called program will actually emit under what circumstances, and make it match your requirements as closely as possible, rather than blindly discarding all the output and (worse) the errors. Work with Murphy’s law; assume that anything that can go wrong eventually will.

Send the output somewhere useful

Another common mistake is failing to set a useful MAILTO at the top of the crontab(5) file, as the specified destination for any output and errors from the tasks. cron(8) uses the system mail implementation to send its messages, and typically, default configurations for mail agents will simply send the message to an mbox file in /var/mail/$USER, that they may not ever read. This defeats much of the point of mailing output and errors.

This is easily dealt with, though; ensure that you can send a message to an address you actually do check from the server, perhaps using mail(1):

$ printf '%s\n' 'Test message' | mail -s 'Test subject'

Once you’ve verified that your mail agent is correctly configured and that the mail arrives in your inbox, set the address in a MAILTO variable at the top of your file:

0 * * * *    you  cron-task-1
*/5 * * * *  you  cron-task-2

If you don’t want to use email for routine output, another method that works is sending the output to syslog with a tool like logger(1):

0 * * * *   you  cron-task | logger -it cron-task

Alternatively, you can configure aliases on your system to forward system mail destined for you on to an address you check. For Postfix, you’d use an aliases(5) file.

I sometimes use this setup in cases where the task is expected to emit a few lines of output which might be useful for later review, but send stderr output via MAILTO as normal. If you’d rather not use syslog, perhaps because the output is high in volume and/or frequency, you can always set up a log file /var/log/cron-task.log … but don’t forget to add a logrotate(8) rule for it!

Put the tasks in their own shell script file

Ideally, the commands in your crontab(5) definitions should only be a few words, in one or two commands. If the command is running off the screen, it’s likely too long to be in the crontab(5) file, and you should instead put it into its own script. This is a particularly good idea if you want to reliably use features of bash or some other shell besides POSIX/Bourne /bin/sh for your commands, or even a scripting language like Awk or Perl; by default, cron(8) uses the system’s /bin/sh implementation for parsing the commands.

Because crontab(5) files don’t allow multi-line commands, and have other gotchas like the need to escape percent signs % with backslashes, keeping as much configuration out of the actual crontab(5) file as you can is generally a good idea.

If you’re running cron(8) tasks as a non-system user, and can’t add scripts into a system bindir like /usr/local/bin, a tidy method is to start your own, and include a reference to it as part of your PATH. I favour ~/.local/bin, and have seen references to ~/bin as well. Save the script in ~/.local/bin/cron-task, make it executable with chmod +x, and include the directory in the PATH environment definition at the top of the file:


0 * * * *  you  cron-task

Having your own directory with custom scripts for your own purposes has a host of other benefits, but that’s another article…

Avoid /etc/crontab

If your implementation of cron(8) supports it, rather than having an /etc/crontab file a mile long, you can put tasks into separate files in /etc/cron.d:

$ ls /etc/cron.d

This approach allows you to group the configuration files meaningfully, so that you and other administrators can find the appropriate tasks more easily; it also allows you to make some files editable by some users and not others, and reduces the chance of edit conflicts. Using sudoedit(8) helps here too. Another advantage is that it works better with version control; if I start collecting more than a few of these task files or to update them more often than every few months, I start a Git repository to track them:

$ cd /etc/cron.d
$ sudo git init
$ sudo git add --all
$ sudo git commit -m "First commit"

If you’re editing a crontab(5) file for tasks related only to the individual user, use the crontab(1) tool; you can edit your own crontab(5) by typing crontab -e, which will open your $EDITOR to edit a temporary file that will be installed on exit. This will save the files into a dedicated directory, which on my system is /var/spool/cron/crontabs.

On the systems maintained by the author, it’s quite normal for /etc/crontab never to change from its packaged template.

Include a timeout

cron(8) will normally allow a task to run indefinitely, so if this is not desirable, you should consider either using options of the program you’re calling to implement a timeout, or including one in the script. If there’s no option for the command itself, the timeout(1) command wrapper in coreutils is one possible way of implementing this:

0 * * * *  you  timeout 10s cron-task

Greg’s wiki has some further suggestions on ways to implement timeouts.

Include file locking to prevent overruns

cron(8) will start a new process regardless of whether its previous runs have completed, so if you wish to avoid locking for long-running task, on GNU/Linux you could use the flock(1) wrapper for the flock(2) system call to set an exclusive lockfile, in order to prevent the task from running more than one instance in parallel.

0 * * * *  you  flock -nx /var/lock/cron-task cron-task

Greg’s wiki has some more in-depth discussion of the file locking problem for scripts in a general sense, including important information about the caveats of “rolling your own” when flock(1) is not available.

If it’s important that your tasks run in a certain order, consider whether it’s necessary to have them in separate tasks at all; it may be easier to guarantee they’re run sequentially by collecting them in a single shell script.

Do something useful with exit statuses

If your cron(8) task or commands within its script exit non-zero, it can be useful to run commands that handle the failure appropriately, including cleanup of appropriate resources, and sending information to monitoring tools about the current status of the job. If you’re using Nagios Core or one of its derivatives, you could consider using send_nsca to send passive checks reporting the status of jobs to your monitoring server. I’ve written a simple script called nscaw to do this for me:

0 * * * *  you  nscaw CRON_TASK -- cron-task

Consider alternatives to cron(8)

If your machine isn’t always on and your task doesn’t need to run at a specific time, but rather needs to run once daily or weekly, you can install anacron and drop scripts into the cron.hourly, cron.daily, cron.monthly, and cron.weekly directories in /etc, as appropriate. Note that on Debian and Ubuntu GNU/Linux systems, the default /etc/crontab contains hooks that run these, but they run only if anacron(8) is not installed.

If you’re using cron(8) to poll a directory for changes and run a script if there are such changes, on GNU/Linux you could consider using a daemon based on inotifywait(1) instead.

Finally, if you require more advanced control over when and how your task runs than cron(8) can provide, you could perhaps consider writing a daemon to run on the server consistently and fork processes for its task. This would allow running a task more often than once a minute, as an example. Don’t get too bogged down into thinking that cron(8) is your only option for any kind of asynchronous task management!

Shell config subfiles

Large shell startup scripts (.bashrc, .profile) over about fifty lines or so with a lot of options, aliases, custom functions, and similar tweaks can get cumbersome to manage over time, and if you keep your dotfiles under version control it’s not terribly helpful to see large sets of commits just editing the one file when it could be more instructive if broken up into files by section.

Given that shell configuration is just shell code, we can apply the source builtin (or the . builtin for POSIX sh) to load several files at the end of a .bashrc, for example:

source ~/.bashrc.options
source ~/.bashrc.aliases
source ~/.bashrc.functions

This is a better approach, but it still binds us into using those filenames; we still have to edit the ~/.bashrc file if we want to rename them, or remove them, or add new ones.

Fortunately, UNIX-like systems have a common convention for this, the .d directory suffix, in which sections of configuration can be stored to be read by a main configuration file dynamically. In our case, we can create a new directory ~/.bashrc.d:

$ ls ~/.bashrc.d

With a slightly more advanced snippet at the end of ~/.bashrc, we can then load every file with the suffix .bash in this directory:

# Load any supplementary scripts
for config in "$HOME"/.bashrc.d/*.bash ; do
    source "$config"
unset -v config

Note that we unset the config variable after we’re done, otherwise it’ll be in the namespace of our shell where we don’t need it. You may also wish to check for the existence of the ~/.bashrc.d directory, check there’s at least one matching file inside it, or check that the file is readable before attempting to source it, depending on your preference.

The same method can be applied with .profile to load all scripts with the suffix .sh in ~/.profile.d, if we want to write in POSIX sh, with some slightly different syntax:

# Load any supplementary scripts
for config in "$HOME"/.profile.d/*.sh ; do
    . "$config"
unset -v config

Another advantage of this method is that if you have your dotfiles under version control, you can arrange to add extra snippets on a per-machine basis unversioned, without having to update your .bashrc file.

Here’s my implementation of the above method, for both .bashrc and .profile:

Thanks to commenter oylenshpeegul for correcting the syntax of the loops.

Prompt directory shortening

The common default of some variant of \h:\w\$ for a Bash prompt PS1 string includes the \w escape character, so that the user’s current working directory appears in the prompt, but with $HOME shortened to a tilde:


This is normally very helpful, particularly if you leave your shell for a time and forget where you are, though of course you can always call the pwd shell builtin. However it can get annoying for very deep directory hierarchies, particularly if you’re using a smaller terminal window:


If you’re using Bash version 4.0 or above (bash --version), you can save a bit of terminal space by setting the PROMPT_DIRTRIM variable for the shell. This limits the length of the tail end of the \w and \W expansions to that number of path elements:

tom@sanctum:/chroot/apache/usr/local/app-library/lib/App/Library/Class$ PROMPT_DIRTRIM=3

This is a good thing to include in your ~/.bashrc file if you often find yourself deep in directory trees where the upper end of the hierarchy isn’t of immediate interest to you. You can remove the effect again by unsetting the variable:

tom@sanctum:.../App/Library/Class$ unset PROMPT_DIRTRIM

Testing exit values in Bash

In Bash scripting (and shell scripting in general), we often want to check the exit value of a command to decide an action to take after it completes, likely for the purpose of error handling. For example, to determine whether a particular regular expression regex was present somewhere in a file options, we might apply grep(1) with its POSIX -q option to suppress output and just use the exit value:

grep -q regex options

An approach sometimes taken is then to test the exit value with the $? parameter, using if to check if it’s non-zero, which is not very elegant and a bit hard to read:

# Bad practice
grep -q regex options
if (($? > 0)); then
    printf '%s\n' 'myscript: Pattern not found!' >&2
    exit 1

Because the if construct by design tests the exit value of commands, it’s better to test the command directly, making the expansion of $? unnecessary:

# Better
if grep -q regex options; then
    # Do nothing
    printf '%s\n' 'myscript: Pattern not found!\n' >&2
    exit 1

We can precede the command to be tested with ! to negate the test as well, to prevent us having to use else as well:

# Best
if ! grep -q regex options; then
    printf '%s\n' 'myscript: Pattern not found!' >&2
    exit 1

An alternative syntax is to use && and || to perform if and else tests with grouped commands between braces, but these tend to be harder to read:

# Alternative
grep -q regex options || {
    printf '%s\n' 'myscript: Pattern not found!' >&2
    exit 1

With this syntax, the two commands in the block are only executed if the grep(1) call exits with a non-zero status. We can apply && instead to execute commands if it does exit with zero.

That syntax can be convenient for quickly short-circuiting failures in scripts, for example due to nonexistent commands, particularly if the command being tested already outputs its own error message. This therefore cuts the script off if the given command fails, likely due to ffmpeg(1) being unavailable on the system:

hash ffmpeg || exit 1

Note that the braces for a grouped command are not needed here, as there’s only one command to be run in case of failure, the exit call.

Calls to cd are another good use case here, as running a script in the wrong directory if a call to cd fails could have really nasty effects:

cd wherever || exit 1

In general, you’ll probably only want to test $? when you have specific non-zero error conditions to catch. For example, if we were using the --max-delete option for rsync(1), we could check a call’s return value to see whether rsync(1) hit the threshold for deleted file count and write a message to a logfile appropriately:

rsync --archive --delete --max-delete=5 source destination
if (($? == 25)); then
    printf '%s\n' 'Deletion limit was reached' >"$logfile"

It may be tempting to use the errexit feature in the hopes of stopping a script as soon as it encounters any error, but there are some problems with its usage that make it a bit error-prone. It’s generally more straightforward to simply write your own error handling using the methods above.

For a really thorough breakdown of dealing with conditionals in Bash, take a look at the relevant chapter of the Bash Guide.